By: Joseph C. Dean, P.E. for the Director, Corrosion Policy & Oversight (D, CPO) [OUSD (AT& L)
Corrosion prevention and control (CPC) plays a significant role in facility SRM and O&M of DoD installations. SRM engineering and design for CPC include the full range of efforts from corrosion problem identification to selection of criteria and development of plans and specifications. Problem solving may require analysis of an issue, such as determining the cause of spalling concrete cover over reinforcing steel, identifying a coating failure, or the correction of a cathodic protection malfunction. In order to determine the best course of action, it is often essential to determine the cause and rate of corrosion. Identification of design defects, improper material/coating selection, and construction impacts will help the sustainment, restoration, and modernization engineer, architect and maintenance professional determine what corrective measures are required.
Examples include correcting a spalling failure through removal of the concrete cover and rusted surface of the reinforcing steel, repairing the concrete and ultimately denying access of the elements to the steel. Another problem solution might include adding dehumidification where needed, adding HVAC water treatment, selection of specialized coatings, or determining which type of power pole replacement material should be used in highly corrosive soils. These "solutions" may not require full plans and specifications and may be expeditiously resolved using simplified acquisition. Discovering the problems before they become unsolvable without extensive investment is an essential feature of SRM management. This section will discuss the essentials of good SRM management and their relationship to CPC.
The Facilities Operations and Maintenance Program and CPC
The control of corrosion occurs through a well planned and executed facilities operations and maintenance (O&M) program. The elements of the O&M program should include a focus on all aspects of corrosion. Leveraging facilities data and information along with an aggressive CPC education program will dramatically improve the installation’s chances of discovering issues before failure and mission degradation occurs.
The extent of facilities corrosion management will vary based upon available financial and manpower resources. However, preventive maintenance is usually more cost effective than corrective maintenance as materials degrade at a higher rate once chemical deterioration begins (ex. Formation of rust). Modern day facilities management relies more on predictive modeling for determining requirements rather than prior approaches of utilizing craftsmen and other experts to actually perform visual inspections. Certainly inspections occur, but they tend to be focused and not routine. If “corrosion” is not a high priority then it is very possible that only a failure of a structure or unsightly rust might motivate a repair initiative. If a deficiency is identified or a specialized CPC feature is required in a new or repaired facility, it has a greater chance of being identified in the final RFP and constructed project. In other words, assuming CPC features will somehow just happen is unreasonable and irresponsible. The SRM manager must be proactive to ensure that CPC is discovered, addressed and included in all appropriate projects regardless of size and complexity.
A well-organized maintenance program should thoroughly capture projects through recording workload, planning and conducting emergency and routine repairs, recurring work and regularly scheduled inspections, preventive maintenance, and scheduled repair or replacement of facility components as needed to maintain and sustain the facility. A facilities management program that includes CPC data elements should be used to ensure appropriate tracking, budgeting and scheduling. The DoD requires the development of a Facility Condition Index (FCI) metric. This enables real-property professionals to make informed and accurate decisions about facility conditions, workload distribution and to meet operational readiness requirements. The DoD has established a “DoD-wide facility condition assessment process that incorporates the Sustainment Management System developed by the U.S Army Corps of Engineers’ Engineer Research and Development Center – Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (ERDC-CERL). The SMS application commonly known as Builder® will enable trained building inspectors, engineers, technicians, and maintenance-shop personnel to determine when, where, and how to best maintain facility infrastructure, and will provide sustainment experts with real-time, integrated data on the condition, functionality, and remaining service life of DoD facilities, service systems, and components.” It will facilitate the development of long and short-range maintenance and repair work-plans, and help budget development focusing on most needed investments.
Another important DoD initiative is the Facility Recapitalization Initiative that concentrates on ensuring that warfighter needs are met, either through the use of existing facilities or through the fiscally responsible construction of new facilities. The facility recapitalization program is focused on the following:
- “Sustaining current facilities;
- Achieving inventory-wide facility condition index (FCI) goals;
- Ensuring that all DoD facilities are capable of meeting mission requirements and providing a reasonable quality of life to DoD personnel using them; and
- Establishing methods to identify and remediate within a reasonable timeframe any “failing facilities,” i.e., facilities in poor physical condition; through demolition, replacement, or repair.”
Timely and effective management of corrosion prevention and control is a key contributor in making balanced evaluations and decisions in support of these programs.
The Facilities Corrosion Strategy
Developing and following a Corrosion Strategy will have a positive impact on the life cycle. Corrosion should be addressed continuously during the facility life cycle. Relevant corrosion related requirements in specifications and standards should be understood, referenced and distributed to all project team members.
Elements of a good strategy include:
- Establishing good lines of communication to receive and convey all aspects of corrosion prevention and control and its potential impact to the facility’s life cycle costs.
- Implementing design best practices for improved life cycle CPC.
- Communicating all CPC contract requirements to the acquisition Team (e.g. Project Manager, Design Manager, Construction Manager, Contractor, Architect/Engineer, Construction Inspector, Quality Control Representative, Sustainment workforce, etc.).
- Improving education and training of sustainment personnel in the recognition and implementation of constructed CPC features in the completed project.
Preventive Maintenance and CPC
Preventive maintenance is more cost-effective than corrective maintenance; discovering and acting upon corrosive degradation interrupts the life cycle and avoids the formation of rust and the beginning of chemical deterioration. The information collected during routine maintenance inspections, including obtaining advice from journeyman who knows the facility well will help in determining corrosion mitigation strategies.
Suggested resources for the development of a maintenance program include:
- Leveraging a sustainment management system (SMS) to facilitate good and cost effective decisions. The sustainment management system will assist with maintenance planning, preventive maintenance scheduling and tracking, corrective work planning and management and cost control. The sustainment management information system should support the installation’s information system requirements along with providing essential history and repair program budgeting and scheduling.
Thoughts on Sustainment Management Professional Proficiencies
Recommended proficiencies for the sustainment professional will vary based upon many factors including the size and operational tempo of the installation, complexity of the facilities, and location specific environmental severity impacts. The following thoughts are provided to assist in establishing required knowledge levels for sustainment professionals engaged in CPC. Pursuit of appropriate coursework to assist in achieving these knowledge and professional levels can be found on the CPC Source Training web page.
Designer (Architect, Engineer, Other Design Professional)
Basic or General Knowledge: Developmental Designer who is learning various aspects of the design process. Includes coordination with other disciplines, gathering design data, researching criteria, codes, WBDG & other sources of information from the WBDG. Develops CPC knowledge to establish how best to fit into the design process for life-cycle expectations.
Intermediate Level: At this level, the Designer can apply intermediate-level CPC knowledge to the development of the facility design to include identification of the CPC requirement, selection/editing of the appropriate criteria (e.g. UFC, UFGS, etc.) to achieve life-cycle expectations.
Advanced Level: Consistent with employee development goals & requirements, this level might include the requirement to be a PE/RA, DAIWIA Level 3, and become an “expert” in their discipline area. CPC knowledge should be commensurate with that level of expertise & is required to collaborate project design elements with other disciplines to accurately achieve required levels of CPC consistent with life-cycle expectations.
Sustainment Engineer, Architect
Basic or General Knowledge: Developmental Sustainment Engineer/Architect Manager who is learning how various aspects of the facilities management process fit together. This includes developing an appreciation & understanding of the building trades as well as engineering disciplines. The engineer/architect researches job orders, maintenance processes, CPC techniques, & scheduling of projects; gathers maintenance & design data, researches criteria, codes, WBDG and other sources of sustainment information. The engineer/architect develops CPC knowledge to contribute to the maintenance process to achieve life-cycle expectations.
Intermediate Level: At this level the Sustainment Engineer/Architect Manager can apply intermediate level CPC knowledge to the sustainment & maintenance management of the facility to include identification of the CPC deficiencies & requirement & development of solutions. Coordinates contract requirements with acquisition professionals to include recommending the appropriate criteria (e.g. UFC, UFGS, etc.) & industry best practices to achieve life-cycle expectations.
Advanced Level: Consistent with employee development goals & requirements, this level might include the requirement to be a PE/RA, DAIWIA Level 3, and become an “expert” in their discipline area. CPC knowledge should be commensurate with that level of expertise & is required to collaborate sustainment actions with engineering & architectural disciplines, acquisition professionals & construction & project oversight to accurately achieve required levels of CPC consistent with desired life-cycle expectations.
Sustainment Field Professional (Tradesman, Planner, Estimator)
Basic or General Knowledge: Targeted at the entry level/basic knowledge development of CPC skills. Extensive training is required to develop how CPC relates to building elements such as HVAC, plumbing, structural, coatings, electrical, concrete and re-enforcing steel, roofing, waterproofing, insulation, moisture protection systems, and associated CPC design geometrics. Specific beginner knowledge of coating application, cathodic protection, design geometrics and surface preparation is required. The field professional researches job orders, maintenance processes, CPC techniques, & scheduling of projects, researches criteria, codes, WBDG and other sources of CPC sustainment information. Develops CPC knowledge to establish how it best fits into the maintenance process to achieve life-cycle expectations.
Intermediate: The field professional is working more independently on projects & issues of greater scope and complexity. Builds upon knowledge gained at the basic level. Can apply intermediate level CPC knowledge to the sustainment & maintenance management of the facility to include identification of the CPC deficiencies & requirement & development of solutions. Develop ability to interpret plans & specifications, RFP, time requirements, construction cost issues & construction trades interaction. At this level the field professional has knowledge of Building Systems (e.g. waterfront structures, building envelopes, utilities & force protection, etc.) & the appropriate CPC interfaces.
Advanced: The field professional is expected to function at the journeyman level and to fully function in an independent manner on assigned projects, leveraging special expertise gained through years of experience & knowledge development. CPC knowledge & skills application for the advanced level employee is key to successful creation of CPC solutions, project planning & estimating to ensure the delivery of quality, timely and accurate project work. Supervision & management oversight as well as various CPC related certifications might be required at this level.
Contractor Providing Facilities Management Support Services
Suggested basic proficiency levels for the Contractor & employees must be commensurate with the work complexity, expertise & level of responsibility delineated in the contract documents. In many scenarios the contractor maintains, designs, delivers solutions, manages and ultimately sustains DoD infrastructure. For the contractor to deliver the specified level of quality in the contract, employees must function at various levels of competency delivering products and services consistent with contract requirements. CPC is an essential part of most sustainment and construction solutions and deliverables. The contractor is urged to review available knowledge development resources and proficiency recommendations to ensure that appropriate levels of CPC and quality are delivered via their contracts on DoD Installations. See the CPC Source Training Page for training ideas, resources including industry and certification programs (e.g. NACE and SSPC).
CPC Sustainment Summary
CPC sustainment actions must be in line with the facility life cycle objectives to ensure sound budgeting and wise expenditure of what is often a very limited sustainment budget. Several recommend actions for the Sustainment engineer, architect and maintenance professional to consider include:
- Developing a CPC Preventive Maintenance Strategy
- Conducting inspections and data capture to include the type and extent of corrosion, component material, coatings, warranties, age, and maintenance history
- Following best practices in CPC maintenance and work scheduling
- Ensuring that CPC management supports operations and mission
- Conducting CPC operator training
- Early consideration of the maintenance approach for a new or renovated facility to take advantage of the CPC design strategy and new CPC technologies
- Ensuring that facility turnover includes discussion and documentation of CPC features is included in the constructed project
- Understanding CPC specialty (knowledge) areas. In some cases the individual engineer organizations may have SMEs to provide assistance if needed. Often these experts reside at the service laboratories ( The Engineer Research and Development Center, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, (ERDC-CERL), Naval Facilities Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center (NAVFAC EXWC), and Air Force Civil Engineer Center (AFCEC). In addition to the SMEs found at the Service labs, there are SMEs that are part of the UFC program for each service. A partial list of CPC Knowledge Areas includes the following:
- Cathodic protection
- Waterfront Structures
- Tanks, pipelines
- SRM Engineer being involved in problem identification and solution development
- Participation in RFP and selection factor development, etc.
- Planning and Estimating – ensure accuracy and knowledge of CPC in sustainment
- SRM Engineer ensuring that maintenance force training occurs, attention to eOMSI data and information in order to best position workforce to best perform
- Understanding the role that cleaning and maintenance plays in preventing corrosion; this includes avoiding the accumulation of debris, blocking of drains, deterring painting in lieu of cleaning, and enhanced monitoring of CPC health of the facilities
- Monitor in place detection systems such as cathodic protection and SCADA
- Budgeting – leverage SMS knowledge to develop accurate, defensible budgets and maintenance plans
Relevant Codes and Standards
Department of Defense
Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC)
- UFC 3-110-04 Roofing Maintenance and Repair
- UFC 4-150-07 Maintenance and Operation: Maintenance of Waterfront Facilities
- UFC 3-460-03 Maintenance and Operation: Maintenance of Petroleum Systems
- UFC 4-860-03 Railroad Track Maintenance & Safety Standards
Unified Facilities Guide Specifications (UFGS)
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
- Army TM 5-624 et al Maintenance and Repair of Surface Areas
- ECB No. 2016-19 O&M Facility Data Requirements
Navy - NAVFAC
- MO-124 Mooring Maintenance Manual
- MO-406 Hyperbaric Facilities Maintenance Manual
- MO-104.1 Maintenance of Fender Systems and Camels
General Service Administration (GSA)
National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) and Society for Protective Coatings (SSPC)
- Facilities Operations & Maintenance
- Comprehensive Facility Operation & Maintenance Manual
- Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM)
- Critical Equipment Identification and Maintenance
- FEMP Operations & Maintenance Best Practices, Release 3.0: A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency
- Advanced Surface Engineering Technologies for a Sustainable Defense (ASETSDefense)
- American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
- ASM International
- NACE Foundation
- National Association for Surface Finishing (NASF)
- SAE International
- American Institute of Steel Construction
- American Concrete Institute
- American Society of Civil Engineers
- American Public Works Association
- American Water Works Association
- American Institute of Timber Construction
- Asphalt Institute
- International Facility Management Association
- Defense Acquisition University
- The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
- American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers